Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic
Walter Sisulu University
The Medical science covers many subjects which try to clarify how the human body works. It is generally divided into areas of specialization, such as anatomy, physiology and pathology with some biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and molecular biology. Practitioners & students of holistic models of health also recognize the importance of the mind-body connection and the importance of nutrition.
The Cancer Biology portion of the site contains in depth information about the structure and function of normal cells and cancer cells. Cancer biology describe the changes that make normal cells turn into cancer cells. The topics include cancer gene discovery, tumorigenesis, cancer therapy and resistance, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer models, growth control and cell proliferation, metastasis, cell proliferation, cell death, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, microenvironment, DNA repair and replication, transcription, chromosome stability, metabolism, immunology and cancer, immunotherapy, cancer stem cells.
Utilization of drugs to prevent pain during medical procedures is called anesthesia. These medicines are called anesthetics. These drugs are categorized to general, regional, and local anesthetics. General type of anesthetics makes patients unconscious during the procedure while local and regional anesthetics just numb part of the body and allow patients to remain awake. They may be given by inhalation, injection, topical lotion, spray, eye drops, or skin patch depending on the type of pain relief needed.
Forensic science is the application of the methods of the natural and physical sciences to investigate crimes or examine evidence. Forensic science deals a diverse array of disciplines from finger impression and DNA analysis to anthropology and wildlife forensics.
Main topics of Forensic science are:
DNA & biological evidence
Drugs & toxicology
Fingerprints and pattern evidence
The study of heredity in general and of genes in particular is the genetics. Genetics forms one of the central pillars of biology and overlaps with many other areas, such as medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. Medical genetics is the branch of medicine which involves the diagnosis and management of genetical disorders. Genetic medicine is a new term for medical genetics and incorporates areas such as gene therapy, the rapidly emerging new medical specialty, predictive medicine and personalized medicine.
Dental and Oral Health:
Oral and dental health is an essential part of your overall health and wellbeing. Less oral hygiene can lead to dental cavities and gum disease, and has also been linked to diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Good oral hygiene habits such as brushing, flossing, and limiting your sugar intake the easier it willll be to avoid costly dental procedures and long-term health issues. Dental and oral health has risen in importance in recent years as researchers have discovered a connection between declining oral health and underlying systemic conditions.
Obstetrics and Gynaecology:
Obstetrics is medical specialty which deals with the care of the pregnant women, the unborn baby, labor and delivery and the immediate period following childbirth. Gynecology deals with diagnoses and treats diseases of the reproductive organs including cancer of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and vagina. The most common procedures in gynecology are Tubal ligation, Hysterectomy, Oophorectomy, Salpingectomy, Cone biopsy.
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition:
Endocrinology is a field of medicine that deals with the endocrine system. The organs of endocrine system include the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovaries, testes and pancreas. The most common endocrine disease is diabetes. Other conditions treated within endocrinology include osteoporosis, menopause, obesity, short stature, thyroid disease, hypertension and infertility.
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine:
Branch of medicine that deals study and treatment of disorders of the heart & the blood vessels is the cardiology. Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that involve the heart and blood vessels. Cardiac electrophysiology is a subspecialty of cardiology. Major types of cardiovascular medications are Anticoagulants, Antiplatelet Agents and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Cholesterol-lowering medications, Digitalis reparations, Diuretics, Vasodilators.
Infectious Diseases and Antibiotics:
Organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites cause infectious diseases. Various organisms live in and on our bodies, they are normally harmless or even helpful but some organisms may cause disease under certain conditions. Each infectious disease has shown its own specific signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms of infectious diseases include coughing, Fever, Fatigue, Muscle aches and Diarrhea.
Infectious Diseases are treated by Antibiotics in people and animals. Antibiotics work by killing the bacteria or by making it hard for the bacteria to grow and multiply. Antibiotics can be taken in oral, topical and eye ointment, eye drops, or ear drops. It could also be through an injection or intravenously.
Microbiology and Immunology:
Microbiology mainly focuses on the mechanisms that underlie diseases caused by a number of microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, helminthes and protozoa. Importance of this study is placed on the combined use of cellular, molecular and structural biology to unravel detailed structure-function relationships underlying pathogen-host interactions.
Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms, it deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease, malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders. The study of structure and function of the cell is called cell biology. Cell biology also deals with physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle & interactions with their surroundings.
Neurology and Neurological Sciences:
Neurology is the study of the nervous system, it is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, computer science and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia, and neural circuits.
Disorders of neurology that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, such as Cerebrovascular disease, such as stroke, Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, Headache, Movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), epilepsy, Spinal cord disorders, Speech and language disorders, Infections of the brain and peripheral nervous system.
Internal Medicine and Primary Care:
Internal medicine is a medical specialty, in which physicians apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to diagnose and treat adults with a very broad range of health concerns and diseases. Surgeons who specialize in internal medicine are called internists or general internists.
Primary care is the provision of integrated and accessible health care services by physicians and their health care teams who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. The primary care is person-centered, team-based, community-aligned, and designed to achieve better health, better care, and lower costs.
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine:
Pathology is a branch of medical science mainly concerning the cause, origin and nature of disease. It involves the scrutiny of tissues, organs, bodily fluids and autopsies in order to study and identify disease. General pathology, Anatomical pathology, Clinical pathology and Chemical Pathology or Biochemistry are some categories in this field.
Surgery and Transplantation:
Surgery is done for many reasons. A patient may have the surgery to further explore the condition for the purpose of diagnosis, take a biopsy of a suspicious lump, Remove or repair unhealthy tissues or organs, remove an obstruction, reposition structures to their normal position, Redirect blood vessels (bypass surgery), Transplant tissue or whole organs, Implant mechanical or electronic devices, Improve physical appearance.
Transplantation is a procedure that is done to substitute one of your organs with a healthy one from someone else. The surgery is only one part of a complex and long term process. The most common types of medications used before, during, and after surgeries include anesthesia, paralytics, benzodiazepines, antibiotics, analgesics, anticoagulants, stool softeners, and antiemetics.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation:
Rehabilitation is care that can assist you getting back and improve abilities like physical, mental, and cognitive that you want for daily life. You may have lost them due to illness or injury, or as a side effect from a medical treatment. Rehabilitation can improve your daily life.
Public Health and Patient Safety:
Public health works to track disease outbursts, prevent injuries and shed light on why some of us are more likely to suffer from poor health than healthy one. Public health advances and secure the health of people and the communities where they live, learn, work and play. The numerous features of public health include speaking out for laws that promote smoke free indoor air and seatbelts, spreading the word about ways to stay healthy and giving science-based solutions to problems.
Paediatrics and Neonatology:
Paediatrics is deals with the health and medical care of infants, children and adolescents from birth up to 18 years of age. Branch of Paediatrics is concerned not only about immediate management of the ill child but also long-term effects on quality of life, disability, and survival.
Nursing Education and Practice:
Nursing education and practice is referring to formal learning and training in the science of nursing. Nursing education comprises the functions and duties in the patients physical care and a combination of different disciplines that both accelerates the patients return to health and helps to maintain the health.
Occupational Health and Safety:
Occupational health and safety is a medical branch of public health. OHS meant at improving workplace health and safety standards. Occupational Health and safety deals injury and illness trends in the worker population and offers suggestions for mitigating the risks and hazards they encounter on the job. Each and every occupation has health or safety risks associated with it, and it is every employers responsibility to ensure that their employees can carry out their work as safely as possible.
Digital Health and Health Informatics:
Scope of digital health includes digital technologies, that are constantly evolving and categories such as mHealth, wearable devices such as activity trackers, health information technology, telemedicine and telehealth. DH is the study of information and communication technologies to direct healthcare services or to promote better health and wellbeing. Informatics deals with the information and the blending of people, biomedicine, and technology. Health informatics concerning about data, information and knowledge and what to do with all this as healthcare professionals.
Clinical Trials and Case Reports:
Research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention is known as a clinical trial. They are the primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet or medical device, is safe and effective in people. A clinical trial is used to find out whether the new treatment is more effective and/or has less harmful side effects than the standard treatment. Clinical Case Reports aim is to directly improve global health outcomes and share clinical knowledge using case reports to convey important best practice messages.